Dr. Bhavana Parikh

Breast Cancer

DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENTS, CAUSES

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Breast cancer is one of most curable cancer if detected early.

The incidence of breast cancer rises after age 40. The highest incidence (approximately 80% of invasive cases) occurs in women over age 50.

Symptoms

Mammography

It is basically X-Ray with low dose radiation; it takes two x-rays of each breast. Mammography procedure is not painful but gives some discomfort to breast. Mammography should be done after 40 years of age; younger female requires solography of breast to detect any kind of breast lump of breast cancer.

Microcalcification

Micro calcifications are small calcium deposits that look like white specks on a mammogram. This is extreme common finding on mammogram. Majority are non-cancerous (Benign).
Micro calcifications are usually not a result of cancer. But if they appear in certain patterns and are clustered together, they may be a sign of precancerous cells or early breast cancer.

DCIS

DCIS stands for ductal carcinoma in-situ, which means cancerous cells have started to grow within one of the milk-ducts of breast. If the cells were still confined to the milk duct, it is classified as having a Stage 0 breast cancer.

Invasive breast cancer

Majority of Breast cancers are Invasive variety. After investigation, generally patient cancer stage is decided and treatment is done according to stage.

Breast Conservative Surgery (BCS)/ Oncoplastic Breast Surgery

Not all breast cancer patients require the removal of breasts. The breast can be saved in the majority of breast cancer patients.
In BCS, only the tumor and a small margin of surrounding normal tissue are removed, along with a few lymph nodes for testing.

Oncoplastic Breast surgery

It is an approach for breast cancer patients that improve cosmetic outcomes. To do this, surgeons will combine breast cancer tumour removal (a lumpectomy or partial mastectomy) and plastic surgery techniques (reconstructive surgery) at the same time of breast conservation surgery

Mastectomy

A mastectomy involves the surgical removal of the entire breast and all the lymph nodes in the armpit.

Very early-stage breast cancer with hormone receptor positive, requires few special tests, if it is low risk tumor, chemotherapy may not require. Only hormonal treatment (In form of tablet for 5 years) is sufficient. You need to consult your oncologist for this.

If it is indicated, chemotherapy should be given. Majority of side of chemotherapy is reversible. Patient with good nutrition, family support and specialised medicine can treat side effects very well.
Hair loss is one side effect that everyone is asking, but hair growth starts almost few months after completion of chemotherapy.

Hormonal Therapy and Targeted therapy

Breast cancer is fuelled by hormones, such as estrogen circulating in the body. After the initial surgery, tumour samples are examined in the lab for the presence of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptor and Her 2 neu receptor.
The results of these tests will determine if a woman would be a good candidate for a drug like Tamoxifen, which binds to the hormone receptors – and prevents the real estrogen from acting on the tumour. Tamoxifen can slow or stop the growth of cancer cells and is considered highly effective in lowering the risk of breast cancer recurrence.
For post-menopausal women with hormone-sensitive tumours, doctors may prescribe a class of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors, instead of Tamoxifen.

Herceptin (Targeted Therapy)

It is another drug that can help put the brakes on uncontrolled cancer growth. It is used in women who have a gene that leads to an excessive number of HER2 receptors on the surface of the cancer cells. These receptors pick up growth signals and spur on the tumour. By blocking HER2 receptors, Herceptin can slow or stop the growth of the breast cancer.

Other Types of Cancer

The bronchial tumour is a condition where the tumours are formed in the bronchial tubes. The occurrence of bronchial tumours is strongly associated with cigarette smoking (both active and passive).

Early detection plays a pivotal role in treating leukaemia with positive clinical outcomes. Therefore, no symptom should be ignored if it lasts for more than two weeks.

Bone cancer happens when the bone cells start to grow uncontrollably. Bone cancers are rare, and they could either start in bones or spread from other organs to bones.

Every Patient Deserves

Best Care and Treatment

Dr. Bhavna Parikh DNB (Oncosurgery)